This study, written by Joan Spero during her two-year tenure as visiting fellow at the Foundation Center, draws upon interviews with foundation presidents, program officers, and philanthropic experts; Foundation Center data; and Ms. Spero's own past experience as president of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation to paint a detailed historical picture of international work by U.S. foundations from the Cold War to the present. It focuses on how foundations have addressed five global challenges -- health disparities, poverty, climate change, democracy and civil society, and peace and security -- and raises important questions regarding the assessment of foundation impact, the role of foundations in global governance, and institutional accountability.
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